Mandela's South Africa--and After

Table of Contents

In Essence

senior editor Greg Easterbrook in the New Republic (Jan. 4 & 11, 1999). The article was s~ibtitlecl "Why Life in the U.S. Has Never Been Better," and it proved to be only the first of many upbeat verdicts. As Easterbook noted, he was bucking a long tide of pessimism among pundits and politicians of all stripes. The culture wars, with their warnings about moral decline and about moralistic oppression, have been good for both left and right agendas. But according to Easterbrook, many...

Larry D. Kramer, in Flmircl Law Review (Jan. 1999), Gannctt House, 1511 Massachusetts Avc., Cambridge, Mass. 02138.Historians and legal scholars seeking to understand the intent of the Framers of the Constitution have long looked to James Madison's Federalist No. 10, in which he argued that the "mischief of faction" could be overcome through enlargement of the Re-public and the proliferation of interests. They have assumed that his brilliant argument deci- sivcly shaped the founding...

Larry D. Kramer, in Flmircl Law Review (Jan. 1999), Gannctt House, 1511 Massachusetts Avc., Cambridge, Mass. 02138.Historians and legal scholars seeking to understand the intent of the Framers of the Constitution have long looked to James Madison's Federalist No. 10, in which he argued that the "mischief of faction" could be overcome through enlargement of the Re-public and the proliferation of interests. They have assumed that his brilliant argument deci- sivcly shaped the founding...

Pat Rob- ertson in 1989, handed out 46 million "voter guides" in churches across the nation in 1996.8Think locally. "Back in the 197Os, when Jern Falwell of the Moral Majority and other Christian Right leaders began urging their flocks to become politically active, the GOP was dominated I)!, . . . Main Street and Wall Street. Through organizational work at eve? level of politics . . . tile Christian Right became, within a decade, arguably the most powerful faction in the par+."...

the Persian Gulf War, has passed-but Washington doesn't realize it, argues Huntington, the noted Harvard University political scientist.U.S. officials talk and act as if America rules the world unchallenged, he asserts. "They boast of American power and American virtue," and "lecture other coun- tries on the universal validity of American principles, practices, and institutions." Secretary of State Madeleine K. Albright, for instance, has called the United States "the...

a UN conference in Rome last summer (and opposed I)!. the United States) as an aid to navigating the tur- moil created the extension of international law. Even so, they conclude, it would be best if nations dealt with their tyrants themselves. International law should only be called upon as "a backup instrument."Rabkin, a political scientist at Corncll University, has no kind words for the Pinochet precedent. "There has long been a customary rule of international law," he notes,...

Jeffrey T. Macher, David C.Mou'ery, and David A. Hodges, in California Management Review (Fall 1998), Univ. of California, S549 Haas School of Business #1900, Berkeley, Calif. 94720-1900.During the 1980s, the woes of the U.S. semiconductor industry became a symbol of America's alarming competitive plunge. In 1989, the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Commission on Industrial Productivity, reflecting widespread expert sentiment, issued a report saying the indus- try was too "fragmented."...

Peter Coy, in Cornell Magazine (Nov.-Dec. 1998), Cornell Alumni Federation, 55 Brown Rd., Itliaca, N.Y.14850-1247.Tired of hearing how their graduates excel as analysts but are lacking in the right stuff as future captains of industry, more and more of the nation's business schools are trying to teach that elusive quality called leadership.One sign of the swelling interest was the emergence of an academic journal on the subject, the Leadership Quarterly, now a decade old. In 1994, the Harvard...

Frank Dobbin and John R. Sutton, in American Journal of Sociology (Sept. 1998), 5835 S. Kinibark, Chicago, 111. 60637.In the early 1970s Washington launched an "employment rights" revolution, with land-mark legislation and regulation in the realms of equal employment opportunity, occupational health and safety, and fringe benefits. Many large employers established specialized offices to cope with their new obligations. Then, a curious shift in rationale for these offices took place....

Frank Dobbin and John R. Sutton, in American Journal of Sociology (Sept. 1998), 5835 S. Kinibark, Chicago, 111. 60637.In the early 1970s Washington launched an "employment rights" revolution, with land-mark legislation and regulation in the realms of equal employment opportunity, occupational health and safety, and fringe benefits. Many large employers established specialized offices to cope with their new obligations. Then, a curious shift in rationale for these offices took place....

t way, argues Richmond, a research fellow at Harvard University's Ta~~bmanCenter.Portland officials originally forecast that the rail line, which opened in 1986, woulcl serve 42,900 daily weekday riders in its seventh year; instead, it drew only 23,700. Not only that, most of tile riders (two-thirds in 1996) had merely shifted over from buses. In the dozen cities Richmond studied, suburb-to-downtown bus service-potentially a cheaper, more effec- tive alternative, he says-generally was discon-...

Man Bctli Norton, in Journal of Women's History (Autumn 1998), Dept. of History, Ohio State Univ., 106 Dulles Hall, 230 W. 17th Ax., Columbus, Ohio 43210-1367.It appears that "women's history has finally joined the mainstream," says Norton, a historian at Cornell University and author of Founding Mothers and Fathers (1996). But she detects a few dis- maying impurities in the new tributary. Examining several recent documentary readers aimed at undergraduates, Norton finds that certain...

Man Bctli Norton, in Journal of Women's History (Autumn 1998), Dept. of History, Ohio State Univ., 106 Dulles Hall, 230 W. 17th Ax., Columbus, Ohio 43210-1367.It appears that "women's history has finally joined the mainstream," says Norton, a historian at Cornell University and author of Founding Mothers and Fathers (1996). But she detects a few dis- maying impurities in the new tributary. Examining several recent documentary readers aimed at undergraduates, Norton finds that certain...

President Franklin D. Roosevelt in 1934, called for a compre-hensive program of "social welfare activi- ties," including insurance for unemploy- ment, old age, and sickness; expanded public health programs; pensions for the uninsured elderly; and aid for "fatherless children." This, say the authors, is what "~velfare," at its inception, was: an expancl- ed system of social insurance coupled with public assistance for those ineligible for coverage. replacing "the...

Gary Davis, of Evanston (Illinois) Hospital, in a letter in the same issue of Nature: that Thomas Jefferson's father or grandfather, or one of his paternal uncles, fathered a male slave who had one or more children with Sally Hemings.Foster and his colleagues call Davis's theo- ry "interesting." However, they conclude: "When we embarked on this study, we knew that the results could not be conclusive, but we hoped to obtain some objective data that would tilt the weight of evidence...

G. W. Bernard, in The Historical 1oumal (June 1998), Cambridge Univ. Press, Journals Dept., 40 W. 20th St., New York, N.Y. 1001 1-421 1.Who was the architect of King Henry VIII's religious policy after he broke with Rome in 1533?Thomas Cromwell, say many historians of the Tudor era. Henry was only "the play- thing of factions," dominated during that decade Cromwell, his principal adviser.Bernard, a historian at the University of Southampton, England, paints a different picture, one...

1540,.gather bishops and theologians together and his reputation as a radical Protestant had to cajole and to persuade them to reach an made him a liability, especially since the agreement on the principles of true religion," king was considering an alliance with Bernard says. Inevitably, this meant compro- Catholic France or the Holy Roman Empire. mise, ambiguity, and even contradiction-So Cromwell was dismissed, and executed as which Henry "skillfully used . . . to advance"...

ividual Catholics who took no part in the Nazi atrocities have nothing to apologize for, and individual Catholics who did take part have no one to apologize to, since the mur- dered "are hardly in a position to absolve anyone."At another level (as when the pope says "the church as such"), Novak observes, a Catholic understands "the church" to refer to its magisterium, or teaching authority. Catholics see that "as expressing God's will beginning with Scripture...

only one force, gravity. To correct for certain shortcomings in the theory, cosmologists in the early 1980s adoptccl inflation theory, which, borrowing ideas from particle physics, holds that there was an early period of very rapid expansion after the big bang.But a decade ago, notes physicist LawrenceM. Krauss, of Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, it became clear that when the visible contents of the universe were added up, the collective gravitational force was not enough to bring...

Brucc Bower, in Science News (Dec. 5, 1998), 1719 NSt., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.Objectivity is a fighting word in the cur- rent "science wars." Postmodernist sociolo- gists and philosophers claim that it's only asocially constructed idea masking scientists'shared assun~ptions and self-interested drivesfor power and prestige. Scientists themselves insist that it is a scientific lodestar. What both sides tend to ignore, maintains Science News writer Bower, is the history of...

both the collapse of major theories (e.g., the Newtonian tlieo- ry of light) built the old way and the avail- ability of new devices, such as the camera. In this new era of "mechanical objectivity," it was thought better to illustrate atlases, for example, with a blurred photograph of a dis- tant star or a fragment of a fossil than to pre- sent an imaginative reconstruction.Scientists busied tllemselves standardizing their instruments, clarifying their basic con- cepts, and adopting...

Nick Gillespie, in Reason (Nov. 1998), 341 5 Sepulveda Blvd., Stc. 400, Los Aneeles, Calif. 90034-6064.7 <[he post-structuralist literary critic-who Heathcliff and Catherine Linton (nee is quite sure that all texts have no fixed mean- Earnshaw). Raised as brother and sister, they I, that between the signifier and the signi- struggle, according to the conventional inter- fiecl always falls the shaclow-has been much pretation, with quasi-incestuous desires. But in evidence in English departments...

its narrow focus and required technical background, evolutionary criticism is unlikely to become a full-fledged academic "n~ovement," Gillespie thinks. But the evolutionary critics may at least do some good championing some things that are currently out of vogue in the academic liter- ary world, such as "the scientific method, rational analysis, and the idea that there is something approaching an objective, know- able reality.""China's Other Cultural Revolution" by...

Beth Luey, in Publishing Research Quarterly (Spring 1998), P.O. Box 2423, Bridgeport, Conn. 06608-0423.Millions of Americans have bought Stephen Hawking's Brief History of Time (1988) and other high-profile works of serious nonfiction (some of them, like Hawking's tome, all but impenetrable). Some big hits, such as Carl Sagan's Cosmos (1980), have been glossy coffee-table books tied to public TV shows; others, such as Allan Bloom's Closing of the American Mind (1987), just happened to strike a...

the journal's editors, accuse him of a whitewash.The Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, born nearly four years ago, "now operates within a constitutional and legal framework that possesses all the universally recognized characteristics of a democratic system," says Henze, who has written several books about Ethiopia and the Horn of Africa region.True, the political process is dominated Prime Minister Meles Zenawi's Ethiopian People's Democratic Revolutionary Front (EPDRF), rooted...

Robin Harris, in The Nutiondf Interest (Winter 1998-99), 1112 16th St., N.\V., Ste. 540, Washington, D.C. 20036; "Identity Crisis," in The Economist (Oct. 3, 1998), 25 St. James's St., London SWlA 1HG.For most of the United Kingdom's 292- year history, no clear distinction was made between being British and being English. But that may be changing. "Though most of the rest of the world has not yet grasped it, Britain is now Balkanizing," contends Harris, a freelance writer...

Andrew Gentes, in History Workshop Journal (Autumn 1998),Oxford Univ. Press, Great Clarendon St., Oxford OX2 6DP, England.Thirty stories high, with five gold (or imi- tation gold) domes, the rebuilt Cathedral of Christ the Savior now stands imposingly ill the center of Moscow. Mayor Yuri Luzhkov and others hail it as a symbol of pride and hope, while critics deride it as an expensive ($300 million) piece of kitsch, a Disnev-esquc distraction from painful reality, pre- sent and past. Whatever the...

Masaru Tama~iioto,in World Policy Journal (Fall 1998), World Policy Institute, New School University, 65 Fifth Ave., Stc. 413, New York, N.Y. 10003.Beneath Japan's seeming indecision over how to revitalize its economy, sagging since 1990, is a society on the verge of a grand transformation, observes Tamamoto, a Senior Fellow at the World Policy Institute, New York, and a visiting professor in the Faculty of Law at Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto.During the "bubble" years of 1985-90,...

themedia as apathetic slackers in baggy pants who lack the skills and motivation to succeed in the adult working world. On the contrary, say Schneider, a professor of sociology at the University of Chicago, and Stevenson, an advis- er to the U.S. Department of Education. Far from being ~~nmotivated, "90 percent of high school seniors expect to attend college, and more than 70 percent ex-pect to work in pro- fessional jobs." In the 1950s, contrast, only 55 percent of seniors expected...

Book Reviews

RUSSIA UNDER WESTERN EYESBy Martin Malia. Harvard Univ. Press. 514 pp. $35

DR. FREUD:A Life.By Paul Ferris. Counterpoint. 464 pp. $30FREUD:Conflict and Culture.Edited by Michael S. Roth. Knopf. 272 pp. $26OPEN MINDED:Working Out the Logic of the Soul.By Jonathan Lear. Harvard Univ. Press. 345 pp. $35

AN EMPIRE WILDERNESS:Travels into America's Future.By Robert D. Kaplan. and om House. 384 pp. $27.50

Essays

As President Nelson Mandela prepares to step down, critics charge that he leaves South Africa bound on a course to disaster. But the problems that remain pale beside the magnitude of Mandela's accomplishments.

Allister Sparks

The democratic ideas that spurred America's budding capitalists on were vigorously contested--and still are.

Sean Wilentz

He was best known as the author of The Organization Man, but William H. Whyte, Jr., was also a leading anatomist of city life.

Nathan Glazer

Far from a quixotic crusade, U.S. efforts to promote democracy abroad are part of a pragmatic "hidden" grand strategy.

G. John Ikenberry

American prosperity has re-sparked the debate around the cultural consequences of capitalism and the ties between political and economic freedoms.

Steven Lagerfeld

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