Reconstruction 1865-1877

Table of Contents

In Essence

Dom Bonafede, in
National Journal (Dec. 17, 1977), 1730 MReforming the CIA St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Amid dissension within and public antagonism without, the Central Intelligence Agency embarks on its fourth decade uncertain of its "vanguard" role in the American intelligence community. Admiral Stansfield Turner, its sixth director in as many years, has the unenvi- able task of leading the beleaguered agency through an era of reform. His duty: to balance the demands for openness...

Richard M. Scammon and Ben J. Wattenberg, in Pub-South in 1980 lie Opinion (Mar.-Apr. 1978), 1150 17th
St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
In 1960, many Americans voted for John F. Kennedy to disprove the notion that a Catholic couldn't be elected President. A similar feeling about Southerners may have helped Jimmy Carter in the 1976 elec- tions. But according to political analysts Scammon and Wattenberg, such issues as region and religion, once resolved in an election, tend to disappear. As a result,...

Richard M. Scammon and Ben J. Wattenberg, in Pub-South in 1980 lie Opinion (Mar.-Apr. 1978), 1150 17th
St. N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
In 1960, many Americans voted for John F. Kennedy to disprove the notion that a Catholic couldn't be elected President. A similar feeling about Southerners may have helped Jimmy Carter in the 1976 elec- tions. But according to political analysts Scammon and Wattenberg, such issues as region and religion, once resolved in an election, tend to disappear. As a result,...

Charles Longstreet Welt- Can't BUY ner, in Policy Review (Fall 1977), 513 C St.
N.E., Washington, D.C. 20002.
President Carter signed a $14.7 billion housing measure last October, calling it a "giant step forward" for the nation's cities. But the evidence is growing, says Weltner, a federal judge and former congressman, that "throwing federal dollars" at urban problems may be next to useless. As a case in point, he cites his hometown of Atlanta, Ga. (pop. 1.7 million).
Weltner...

a national data bank? If it is, the Soviet authors contend, the American "bourgeois state" will be able to plug into the telephone conversations, credit ratings, and political affiliations of all Americans. The result would be an "authoritarian state" that would repress "bourgeois law and order," constitutional rights, and liberal elements.
Apparently, say the authors, the only political force "consistently and on principle" opposing Big Brother in America...

IODICALS

POLITICS & GOVERNMENT
Food Stamps: "The Case Against In-Kind Transfers: The
Food Stamo Proeram" bv Judith A. Bar-
mack, in policy Analysis a all 1977), Uni-Not a Bargain versity of California Press, Berkeley, Calif.
Basic changes in the American welfare system over the past decade have led some analysts to conclude that widespread, de facto welfare reform is underway. The food stamp program and Medicaid, for exam- ple, which provide help "in kind" rather than i...

IODICALS

POLITICS & GOVERNMENT
Food Stamps: "The Case Against In-Kind Transfers: The
Food Stamo Proeram" bv Judith A. Bar-
mack, in policy Analysis a all 1977), Uni-Not a Bargain versity of California Press, Berkeley, Calif.
Basic changes in the American welfare system over the past decade have led some analysts to conclude that widespread, de facto welfare reform is underway. The food stamp program and Medicaid, for exam- ple, which provide help "in kind" rather than i...

Richard H. Solomon, in Foreign Affairs (Jan. 1978), 428 E. Preston St., Baltimore, Md.21202.
U.S. concern for the security of Taiwan is the chief obstacle to normali- zation of diplomatic relations between the United States and the People's Republic of China. The Chinese demand the cutting of U.S. ties with Taiwan, abrogation of the 1954 US.-Taiwan mutual defense pact, and withdrawal of all U.S. forces from the island. Solomon, director of the Rand Corporation's research program in International...

Dewey F. Bartlett and James on NATO Arms H. Polk, in AEI Defense Review (no. 6, 1977), American Enterprise Institute, 1150 17th Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Standardization of military hardware, long an operational goal of the 13-nation Atlantic alliance, is the "key" to NATO's survival as an effec- tive deterrent, according to Senator Bartlett (R.-Okla.). But General Polk, former commander in chief of the U.S. Army in Europe and the Seventh Army, believes that standardization...

Dewey F. Bartlett and James on NATO Arms H. Polk, in AEI Defense Review (no. 6, 1977), American Enterprise Institute, 1150 17th Street N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
Standardization of military hardware, long an operational goal of the 13-nation Atlantic alliance, is the "key" to NATO's survival as an effec- tive deterrent, according to Senator Bartlett (R.-Okla.). But General Polk, former commander in chief of the U.S. Army in Europe and the Seventh Army, believes that standardization...

IODICALS

FOREIGN POLICY & DEFENSE
The major problem with any broad new treaty, says Westervelt, is that, given the primitive state of electronic inspection devices, the Soviet Union could easily circumvent the terms of a "comprehensive" ban without detection. The closed nature of Soviet society adds to the problems of verification. Small underground tests, Westervelt believes, would pass without notice, enabling the Soviets to test and modernize their weapons systems.
In the United S...

IODICALS

FOREIGN POLICY & DEFENSE
of Japan's potential nuclear capacity.
The new findings also call into question the arguments of historians who contend that dropping a second bomb on Nagasaki in August 1945 was unnecessary. In their view, the earlier Hiroshima bomb had broken the Japanese will to fight. But, according to Shapley, after the Hiroshima bomb was exploded, physicist Nishina was summoned to Tokyo and asked first whether the bomb had been atomic, then "whether Japan could h...

IODICALS

FOREIGN POLICY & DEFENSE
of Japan's potential nuclear capacity.
The new findings also call into question the arguments of historians who contend that dropping a second bomb on Nagasaki in August 1945 was unnecessary. In their view, the earlier Hiroshima bomb had broken the Japanese will to fight. But, according to Shapley, after the Hiroshima bomb was exploded, physicist Nishina was summoned to Tokyo and asked first whether the bomb had been atomic, then "whether Japan could h...

Robert Pringle, in Foreign Policy (Win-Foggy Bottom ter 1977-78), 155 Allen Blvd., Far-mingdale, N.Y. 11735.
A recent British commission concluded that Her Majesty's diplomatic service was irrelevant and should be disbanded. The U.S. State De- partment has also had its share of problems, including chronic bad relations with Congress and insecurity dating back to the McCarthy era. These traditional ills, writes Pringle, a foreign service officer, are now being aggravated numerous others, including...

weak internal management, a rigid personnel system, and a lack of long-range planning. At least 65 studies since 1951 have iden- tified these shortcomings, but no corrective action has been taken. Promotion panels still tend to penalize those who seek experience "out- side the stagnant mainstream."
The oversupply of senior officials will increase in the months ahead as a result of a recent Supreme Court decision raising the mandatory retirement age from 60 to 70. This development, combined...

the expropriated companies. The result: confiscation of Cuban merchandise.
Even so, says Zimbalist, increased trade with the United States seems inevitable. Cuba is constructing or refurbishing 27 hotels in ap- parent expectation of a new tourist boom. Americans have not lost their taste for rum and cigars. And Cuba could satisfy some of the U.S. de- mand for sugar and nickel (22 percent of U.S. sugar imports now come from the Philippines, 78 percent of the nickel imports from Canada and Norway)....

Ar- thur Okun, in The Brooking5 Bulletin (Fall But Not Growth 1977), 1775 Massachusetts Ave. N.w.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Since the early 1970s the United States has suffered from high unem- ployment and high inflation, a situation new to both American history and economic theory. Successive administrations have responded with traditional monetary and fiscal measures. The failure of these remedies should surprise no one, argues Okun, a Brookings Senior Fellow. "Stagflation"-inflation...

Ar- thur Okun, in The Brooking5 Bulletin (Fall But Not Growth 1977), 1775 Massachusetts Ave. N.w.,
Washington, D.C. 20036.
Since the early 1970s the United States has suffered from high unem- ployment and high inflation, a situation new to both American history and economic theory. Successive administrations have responded with traditional monetary and fiscal measures. The failure of these remedies should surprise no one, argues Okun, a Brookings Senior Fellow. "Stagflation"-inflation...

PERIODICALS
ECONOMICS, LABOR & BUSINESS
only major market from which Japan buys manufactured "primary"
goods such as textiles and chemicals-thus making European exports
highly vulnerable to Japan's protectionist forces; and (b) the Japanese
need for a balance-of-payments surplus to pay for their oil imports-
between 1973 and 1976, annual Japanese outlays for Middle Eastern oil
climbed $13.8 billion.
Japan's success in the competitive struggle unleashed by the oil crisis is...

greater degree among nonwhites, are cardiovascular disease, cancer, infant mortality, accidents, and homicide.
The social and economic consequences of attacking early death, Vau- pel writes, are less disruptive than those of extending old age. Reduc- tions in early deaths would be unlikely to produce major demographic changes in the population. Designing programs to deal with the prob- lem will nevertheless be a vast undertaking, Vaupel acknowledges. New funds for "early death" research,...

greater degree among nonwhites, are cardiovascular disease, cancer, infant mortality, accidents, and homicide.
The social and economic consequences of attacking early death, Vau- pel writes, are less disruptive than those of extending old age. Reduc- tions in early deaths would be unlikely to produce major demographic changes in the population. Designing programs to deal with the prob- lem will nevertheless be a vast undertaking, Vaupel acknowledges. New funds for "early death" research,...

turns comic and moving, remained untold for more than a century and a half after his death.
Jackasses of the size and quality Washington's vision demanded were not easily found. The best were Spanish and under export restrictions. For a time the general despaired until he received a royal gift from Spain's Charles I11 of two blooded jacks, one of which survived the Atlantic crossing to reach Mount Vernon in 1785. Lafayette soon sent over another, from Malta.
Breeding proved an uncertain business,...

Alfred Soman, in Annales-Economies. Sociktks, civilisations ("01.32, no. 4, 1977), Librairie Armand Colin, 103 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75240 Paris, France.
Witchcraft trials were common in France during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During the 17th century, however, the highest court in the land, the Parlement of Paris, began to reduce the sentences meted out to men and women convicted of sorcery.
According to most modern scholars, the Parlement's harsh attitude began to change only...

Alfred Soman, in Annales-Economies. Sociktks, civilisations ("01.32, no. 4, 1977), Librairie Armand Colin, 103 Boulevard Saint-Michel, 75240 Paris, France.
Witchcraft trials were common in France during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. During the 17th century, however, the highest court in the land, the Parlement of Paris, began to reduce the sentences meted out to men and women convicted of sorcery.
According to most modern scholars, the Parlement's harsh attitude began to change only...

compared with a 42 percent Carter vote among other professionals. Academics are also more likely to approve of premarital sex (62 per- cent) and to favor reductions in military spending (46 percent). They are more likely than leaders of feminist groups, civil-rights organiza- tions, students, and newspaper and television reporters to advocate ceilings on personal income.
However, a sizeable majority of professors (65 percent) indicated con- fidence in bankers and financiers. More than two-thirds...

those in the natural sciences, business administration, and engineering. Professors of agriculture are farthest to the right.

PRESS & TELEVISION
"The Elite Press, the Global System, and Foreign News Attention" Andrew K. Sernrnel, in International Interactions (vol. 3, no. 4, 1977), 42 William IV St., London WC2N 4DF, England.
Major American newspapers are fond of advertising their worldwide coverage of the news. But one scholar's study of the New York Times, Los Angeles Times, Mia...

the Miami Herald of Latin America and the Caribbean-an emphasis that appeals to Miami's large Spanish- speaking population.
All nations are not equally important to Americans or to each other, the author concedes. But reliance on occasional "fuzzy snapshots" of events in most countries, he argues, is likely to lead to pervasive igno- rance among the American public of the "scope and novelty" of changes occurring throughout the world.
"Away from Accommodation: Radical
Editors...

subscriptions only, ridiculed Washing- ton's "soulless" materialism. Du Bois's philosophy was simple: "If you are going to take up the wrongs of your race, then you must depend for support absolutely upon your race."
Du Bois's success, the authors conclude, spurred the establishment in 1911 of Crisis convincing the rest of the NAACP leadership that a black journal could attract and retain a large readership while remain- ing independent of white financing or influence.
"Do...

Yirmiahu Yovel, in Cot*~n~ettfurv
(Nov. 1977), 165 E. 56th St., New ~oik,'N.Y. 10022.
In 1656, Amsterdam's Jewish Council of Elders excommunicated a 24-year-old member of their community. His offense: He had proclaimed his view that the Bible was full of contradictions; that the laws of the Torah were arbitrary; that nature and God were one; and that knowl- edge of nature was therefore knowledge of God. [Jndaunted, the youth, Benedict Spinoza (1637-77)) went on to formulate one of the most im-...

many Jews of later generations. "Perhaps we can see in him," writes Yovel, "the first 'secular Jew' at a time when this category did not exist." There is no longer one norm of Jewish existence, he adds, no single con~pulsory model: Judaism today is determined the way Jews live it.
"Religion and the American Future" by Peter L. Berger, in New Oxford Review (Nov. 19771, 6013 Lawton Ave., Oakland, Calif. 94618.
The current "orgiastic self-denigration" of American...

many Jews of later generations. "Perhaps we can see in him," writes Yovel, "the first 'secular Jew' at a time when this category did not exist." There is no longer one norm of Jewish existence, he adds, no single con~pulsory model: Judaism today is determined the way Jews live it.
"Religion and the American Future" by Peter L. Berger, in New Oxford Review (Nov. 19771, 6013 Lawton Ave., Oakland, Calif. 94618.
The current "orgiastic self-denigration" of American...

Mar-
The Cha~zging tin M. Kaplan and Robert G. Webster, in
Face of Flu Scientific American (Dec. 1977), 415
Madison Ave., New York, N.Y. 10017.
Influenza was reported Hippocrates in Greece as early as 412 B.C. In 1918-19, it reached pandemic proportions in Europe, Asia, and America, killing 20 to 40 million people. Until recently, however, little was known about the disease.
The influenza virus was isolated in pigs during the 1920s, in humans a decade later. Subsequently, the influenza A virus,...

an influenza virion (right), the body forms antibodies to prevent the hemagglutinin spike from combining with red blood cells. But rearrangement of ihe RNA, or genetic infonna- tion (red), can change the composition of the hemagglutinin, rendering antibodies ineffective and permitting reinfection.
tion. Since the influenza virus is continually changing, the human body's resistance to one strain may not be effective in resisting a de- viant strain appearing months later.
The authors' conclusions:...

furthering scholasticism (concerned with applying Aristotle's philosophy to the tenets of Christianity) rather than original inquiry.
"Emotional Causes of Sudden Death" Joel E. Din~sdale.in The American Journal of Psychiatry (Dec. 1977), 1700 18th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009.
A 71-year-old woman arrived by ambulance at a hospital emergency room with her stricken 61-year-old sister, who was pronounced dead on arrival. The elder woman collapsed at the news, developed a heart attack,...

furthering scholasticism (concerned with applying Aristotle's philosophy to the tenets of Christianity) rather than original inquiry.
"Emotional Causes of Sudden Death" Joel E. Din~sdale.in The American Journal of Psychiatry (Dec. 1977), 1700 18th St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20009.
A 71-year-old woman arrived by ambulance at a hospital emergency room with her stricken 61-year-old sister, who was pronounced dead on arrival. The elder woman collapsed at the news, developed a heart attack,...

blocking (or enhancing) enkephalin production, it may be possible to regulate emotional disorders. Tests are already being conducted with schizophrenic patients.
To Dea Now "How Artificial Is Intelligence?" William R. Bennet, Jr.,in American Scien-Nat To Be? tist (Nov.-Dec. 1977), 345 Whitney Ave.,
New Haven, Conn. 06511.
In 1927, physicist and mathematician Sir Arthur Eddington proposed a modern version of an ancient philosphical conundrum: Could an army of monkeys drumming on typewriters...

"weighting" a computer-typewiter to account for an author's most commonly used letters, the famous monkey problem can be applied to almost any field of literature. The examples above are based on Hamlet, A Farewell to Arms, and Roger Bacon's Secreturn Secretorurn.
Better-educated fourth-order computers yielded 90 percent words in their letter groups, but Hamlet's soliloquy remained elusive. Unfortu- nately, the biggest computers today are not capable of simulating cor- relations of a...

Thomas H. Maugh 11, in Sci-of Oil Shale ence (Dec. 9, 1977), 1515 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
The United States in the 1970s has become reliant on high-priced for- eign sources of petroleum. According to Maugh, a Science staff writer, this combination of inelastic demand and rising prices has made the development of domestic oil shale economically feasible.
Oil shale-oil locked tightly in solid shale formations-has been touted before as a solution to America's energy crisis,...

Thomas H. Maugh 11, in Sci-of Oil Shale ence (Dec. 9, 1977), 1515 Massachusetts Ave., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20005.
The United States in the 1970s has become reliant on high-priced for- eign sources of petroleum. According to Maugh, a Science staff writer, this combination of inelastic demand and rising prices has made the development of domestic oil shale economically feasible.
Oil shale-oil locked tightly in solid shale formations-has been touted before as a solution to America's energy crisis,...

the problems of conducting human tests. The primary threat posed water pollutants lies in their long- term, low-dose cumulative effects. Because humans live about 35 times longer than mice and have a far more variable genetic composition, high-dose animal exposure tests are no good for determining maximum exposure concentrations in humans.
Despite the lack of adequate testing techniques, says Sterrett, scien- tists must keep plodding along, taking care to continuously "review, re-evaluate,...

the Philadel- phia architect William Strickland, who routinely incorporated sculpture into the many new public build- ings he designed for the city. the time of Houdon's death in 1828, Philadelphia displayed a sculptural land- scape unmatched elsewhere in the new nation.
Philadelphia's William Rush,
who was once a carver of ship's
figureheads, executed this statue
of George Washington in 1S14.
"Vanity, Fame, Love and Robert Frost" by Donald Hall, in Commentary (Dec. 1977), 165...

a need to convince the world of his superiority. From this compulsion, says Hall, Frost constructed his public persona (the simple rustic) and his professional image (the fierce competitor bent on sitting alone atop the "steeple of literary acclaim").
Frost himself believed that he was an evil man who had to be tricked into acts of kindness-he joined in efforts to free poet Ezra Pound from a mental hospital, but only because he thought Pound's release would bring personal publicity. In...

Leonee Ormond, in The Burlington Magazine (Nov. 1977), Elm

 
House, 10-16 Elm St., London WC1, Eng-

 
land.

Although long regarded as a gold mine for the social historian, John Galsworthy's fictional series, The Forsyte Saga, has never been recog- nized as a harbinger of changing English taste in art. Businessman Soames Forsyte, the Saga's central character, is a collector of paintings; the time the novels have spanned the years 1886-1926, Soame...

Alain Rou~uik, in Etudes (Oct. 1977), 15 R& Monsieur. 75007 Paris, France.
When the military government of General Jorge Rafael Videla seized power in 1976 from President Isabel Peron, Argentinians faced both unbridled terrorism and an annual inflation rate as high as 480 percent. Videla moved quickly to crack down on terrorism. But according to Rouqui6, the terrorist threat is now being used chiefly as an excuse for continued civil repression.
Since the late 1960s, when the current wave of...

Alain Rou~uik, in Etudes (Oct. 1977), 15 R& Monsieur. 75007 Paris, France.
When the military government of General Jorge Rafael Videla seized power in 1976 from President Isabel Peron, Argentinians faced both unbridled terrorism and an annual inflation rate as high as 480 percent. Videla moved quickly to crack down on terrorism. But according to Rouqui6, the terrorist threat is now being used chiefly as an excuse for continued civil repression.
Since the late 1960s, when the current wave of...

M. G. Weinbaum, in Eat Oil The Middle East Journal (Autumn 1977),
1761 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
A 13 percent annual increase in food consumption, together with rural out-migration and sluggish farm productivity, threatens the Shah of Iran's ambition to build an industrial society rivaling those of the West, reports Weinbaum, a political scientist at the University of Illinois. Despite crash programs to spur agricultural development, he contends, food policy has fallen victim to the...

M. G. Weinbaum, in Eat Oil The Middle East Journal (Autumn 1977),
1761 N St., N.W., Washington, D.C. 20036.
A 13 percent annual increase in food consumption, together with rural out-migration and sluggish farm productivity, threatens the Shah of Iran's ambition to build an industrial society rivaling those of the West, reports Weinbaum, a political scientist at the University of Illinois. Despite crash programs to spur agricultural development, he contends, food policy has fallen victim to the...

contrast, Khrushchev's vain effort to adopt a "new" Soviet constitution during the late 1950s and early 1960s was an attempt to bar new Stalinist, "cults of personality" placing more rigid, legal controls over the Soviet system. Meissner, director of the Institute for Eastern Law at the University of Cologne, finds that both these tendencies persist in the draft Soviet Constitution published last spring after two decades of stalemate. (The constitution went into effect last October.)
According...

a mixture of law, regulation, government intervention, and trade union power. These new constraints will cause grumbling, but they will not, he believes, drive the companies home.
"La polftica econ6mica del gobiemo de
One FOwardJ Luis Echeverria (1971-1976): Un primer
Two Steps Back ensayo de interpretaci6n1' [The political
economy of the Luis Echeverria adminis- tration (1971-1976): A preliminary analy- sis] C. Gribornent and M. Rimez, in El Trimestre Economico (0ct.-Dec. 1977) Fondo de...

Book Reviews

By Georgia O'Keeffe.
Unnumbered. Penguin, 1977.
$14.95 (Viking, cloth, $35)

Essays

Rights to personal autonomy and privacy are nowhere expressly guaranteed in the U.S. Constitution. Yet in recent years the Su- preme Court, and lower courts as well, have upheld both the claims of individual citizens to a generalized "right to be let alone" and more specific demands for greater control over the uses made of personal information. Judges and legislators have not always found it easy to balance rights of individual privacy and autonomy against competing interests, such...

During the last decade, the right to personal privacy has gained the status of a central social value in America. This new emphasis is, of course, related to the long-standing American belief in personal freedom and the basic dignity and worth of the individual. But the more immediate cause has been public anx- iety about the increasing dominance of government, corpo- rations, and other large bureaucratic organizations-and fears of what these organizations may do with the vast amounts of personal...

Kent Greenawalt

suffering each other to live as seems good to themselves than compel- ling each to live as seems good to the rest.
This doctrine, set forth by John Stuart Mill in ON LIBERTY (London, 1859; Norton, paper, 1975), was, as he put it, "anything but new." But it is from Mill's stout defense of the individual's rights versus those of society, and from his con- cise discussion of the range of issues in- volved, that the modern debate over the relationship between law and morality can be seen...

Dusko Doder
Perhaps understandably, Yugoslavia's image in the West has never been sharply defined. Most Americans know little more about the country than that Marshal Tito fought the Nazis, defied Stalin, and in 1948 pulled out of the Soviet bloc. But even the Yugoslavs have a blurred conception of themselves. In ethnic terms, there is no such thing as a Yugoslav. There are Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, and many other "nationalities." Although they share a common South (or Yugo)...

Perhaps understandably, Yugoslavia's image in the West has never been sharply defined. Most Americans know little more about the country than that Marshal Tito fought the Nazis, defied Stalin, and in 1948 pulled out of the Soviet bloc. But even the Yugoslavs have a blurred conception of themselves. In ethnic terms, there is no such thing as a Yugoslav. There are Serbs, Croats, Slovenes, Macedonians, and many other "nationalities." Although they share a common South (or Yugo) Slav origin,...

's significance now? What will it be after Tito? Conventional answers usually point to the country's anomalous international position-neither Eastern nor West- ern, neither capitalist nor (in the Soviet sense) communist, neither neutral nor satellite. But these are descriptive cliches, not answers.
A real analysis of Yugoslavia's importance must focus on more tangible factors: on its geographical position, its volatile ethnic situation, its much-touted internal system of "self- management,"...

Laurence Silberrnan

. The vitality of its people and the primi- tive countryside captured her imagina- tion. She went on to immerse herself in the research for BLACK LAMB AND GREY FALCON: A Journey Through Yugoslavia (Viking, 1941). Her 1,180-page book remained in print for 33 years and is still available in most libraries. It may be the best book ever written about Yugo- slavia.
Dame Rebecca's rich, old-fashioned mixture of travelogue, cultural history, and political reportage builds slowly but once begun is hard...

Armstead L. Robinson
The first Reconstruction was one of the most critical and turbulent episodes in the American experience. Few periods in the nation's history have produced greater controversy or left a greater legacy of unresolved social issues to afflict future gener- ations.
The postwar period-from General Robert E. Lee's surren- der at Appomattox in April 1865 through President Rutherford
B. Hayes's inauguration in March 1877-was marked bitter partisan politics. In essence, the recurring...

The first Reconstruction was one of the most critical and turbulent episodes in the American experience. Few periods in the nation's history have produced greater controversy or left a greater legacy of unresolved social issues to afflict future gener- ations.
The postwar period-from General Robert E. Lee's surren- der at Appomattox in April 1865 through President Rutherford
B. Hayes's inauguration in March 1877-was marked by bitter partisan politics. In essence, the recurring question was how...

Armstead L. Robinson

By April 1865, the Southern planters' dreams of perpetuat- ing slavery in an independent republic had vanished. Secession had cost the South a quarter of a million men dead and nearly $3 billion in slave property when three and a half million black laborers were freed. As some Southern anti-Secessionists had prophesied, the Civil War ended in the destruction of the "pecul- iar institution" it was intended to make secure.
Before Appomattox, the planters had identified the South's entire...

James L. Roark

Eight or nine years ago, during a classroom discussion of the federal government's retreat in the 1870s from its commit- ment to protect black civil and political rights in the South, a student offered a remark that remains etched in my memory. "This time," he said, "the story will be different." Having grown up during the civil-rights movement of the 1960s, his genera- tion, he asserted, was "more enlightened" than its forebears and would make sure that no backsliding...

James M. McPherson

the Literary Guild-of Claude G. Bowers'
THE TRAGIC ERA: The Revolution after Lincoln (Houghton Mifflin, 1929, cloth; 1930, paper), the Southern view reached its widest audience.
To rebut Bowers' popular anti-Negro, antiradical, anticarpetbagger, anti-scalawag book, black historian W. E. B. Du Bois six years later published his ground-breaking work, BLACK RECON- STRUCTION (Harcourt, 1935; Kraus re- print, 1976).
Du Bois's radically different-some thought alarmingly radical-interpreta- tion garnered...

public agencies and private institutions

"Religion in America"
The Gallup Opinion Index (no. 145), prepared the American Institute of Public Opinion, 53 Bank St., Princeton, N.J. 08540. 118 pp. $3.25.
Many social commentators have as- sumed that the age of "permissive- ness" and relaxed moral standards has prompted Americans to abandon their churches. But according to a Gallup survey, a strong religious climate still exists in the United States.
Some 38 percent of all...

A comic, detached ambivalence lies cism. (Still, he found the Church's at the heart of Evelyn Waugh's work. Index of forbidden books a "conven- He immersed himself in the glitter- ient excuse for not reading Sartre.") ing, sordid swirl of prewar England He came out of a Victorian middle- but at the same time believed it class family but chose the high life would be "very wicked indeed to do among the titled rich, the merely anything to fit a boy for the modem rich, and the leisured...

Kathleen Emmet Barman

Were our Presidents right or wrong tions-and others-remain elusive,
in involving the United States in subject to debate likely to be re-
Vietnam? Did our leaders adopt the newed with each generation of histo-
best strategy for fighting the war? rians, as after other U.S. wars.
Were they genuinely seeking a corn- From the vast literature dealing
promise peace? with Vietnam, only a few dozen
The answers to these big ques- books covering the origins, conduct,
The Wilson QuarterlyISpring 1978

178

and ou...

Peter Braestrup